These are shortened notes, perhaps double the length of staccato, played with emphasis, (not necessarily accented0, using lots of pressure with the middle section of the bow. Vibrato is immaterial. E.g. the eeking just prior to the knife attack in Psycho
My valued Mr. Adler\'s book on Orchestration makes no distinction between Martelé (FR) and Martellato (IT) or Marcato (IT). He says:
\"The derivation of this term is from the verv to hammer. In bowing it indicates a fast, well-articulated, heavy, separate stroke, resembling a sforzando, or pressed accent. While martelé bowing is usually performed toward the frog of the bow, i can be done in the middle portion of the bow as well. The bow does not leave the string, even though there is a stop between the notes, and each new stroke is initiated with a heavy accent.\"
This section is after the discussion of Detaché, Louré (Portato) and Staccato.
When I received my GOS I was a little surprised that Gary uses Martelé and Marcato as different styles or program names, so I am really also interested what the common viewpoint is, different or not.
(PS: don\'t ask me to type in the other sections as well, hehe)
There is a difference between martele and marcato: in marcato the bow does not leave the string, martele can be heard as a playing style between marcato and sautille, with about 75% marcato and 25% sautille.
I think Mr. Adler is wrong: How would the hammer (bow) be able to drive the nail (string) if it would stay attached to it?
b) \"on the string\", Detaché
c) \"off the string\"
a) (typically) means more notes on one bow
b) (typically) change of bow (direction) for separate notes
c) \"jumping\" style (spiccato/saltando), either on purpose, or automatically (depending on speed and dynamics). IMO sautillé is French for saltando.
Within his Detaché category he makes the distinction I mentioned, in order of shorter and more accented bowing.
For marcato (hammering) I believe that the bow does not need to leave the string. It\'s the typical (strong) \"sawing\", stopping the bow shortly after each note and changing direction.
Just my summary of Adler\'s chapter on strings, I am trying to study this material, so I have no \"hands-on\" experience yet. I expect that there are indeed very subtle differences between all the styles and names.
Marcato is not \"hammered\". Martele is \"hammered\".
Marcare (it) or marquer (fr) means: to mark, with an extended meaning of to strike or to emphasize.
Martele or \"hammered\" is played partially off the string as it imitates the action of a hammer.
I, too, never liked Adler\'s lumping together of marcato and martelé/martellato. His description, however, is correct . . . for marcato, that is. Having said that, I do tend to think of martelé/martellato as a stronger marcato stroke, though requiring a slight lifting of the bow (\"off-the-string\") to create that hammered effect. It\'s particularly useful for heavy, repeated downstrokes. (BTW, I wouldn\'t say that it is 25% sautille, since for sautille [a fast or \"unconscious\" spiccato] the bow is pretty much bouncing on its own due to a relaxed grip.)
I was actually thinking about some basic pedagogical stuff like this (a project that would nicely fit into something I\'m just starting with for other audiences, \"browsable\" tutorials with video examples).